Current situation and development of the most popu

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Current situation and development of paper fiber green packaging materials

with the rapid development of industry, the demand for packaging materials is increasing, especially packaging materials with cushioning function, such as plastic foaming materials, have played a decisive role in the past 20 years. However, due to the long-term non biodegradable waste of plastic foaming materials in nature, which has caused serious "white pollution" to the environment, it has been banned by many countries and will be gradually banned in China. Plant fiber materials have a long history. Wood and cartons are traditional plant fiber packaging materials, but as a packaging material with cushioning function, its physical and mechanical properties cannot be compared with foamed plastic products. In addition to the natural degradable, reusable, renewable and extensive resources of natural materials, plant fiber expanded packaging materials also have the characteristics of lightweight, impact resistance, thermal insulation, sound absorption and shock resistance of plastic foaming packaging materials. Plant fiber expanded packaging materials will not only bring a revolution to the field of packaging materials, but also expand the space for the application of plant fiber. Buffer packaging materials belong to a kind of disposable packaging materials with short life cycle and "throw away after use", and the negative impact on the environment is obvious. Green buffer packaging materials are the inevitable trend of the development of buffer packaging materials [1]. The State Bureau of technical supervision has formulated standards for the selection, processing, manufacturing and application scope of green packaging materials, including five products: pulp, paperboard coating, degradable plastics, starch and plant fiber

1 Characteristics of natural plant fibers

natural plant fibers such as bagasse, cotton stalk, chaff, corn straw, straw, wheat straw, etc. are renewable natural resources with rich sources. According to the survey, in order to avoid severe vibration and affect the accuracy of the experimental machine, the annual crop straw in China is more than 200 million tons. As a packaging material, plant straw has many advantages, such as good cushioning performance, non-toxic, odorless, good ventilation performance, and complete natural degradation after use. Paper is the most familiar and widely used green packaging material [2]. Its raw materials come from a wide range of sources. Waste can be recycled and recycled paper, which is easy to decay in the natural environment. It is the earliest green packaging material. In the 1990s, people in the material industry proposed "replacing plastic with paper". At present, the typical varieties widely used in packaging are pulp molding and honeycomb paperboard products. In particular, pulp molded products are used to replace non degradable foamed plastics, and are widely used in tableware, egg trays, fresh fruit trays, industrial trays, food and semi-finished product packaging, medical appliance packaging, etc. Northwest Agricultural University of China has carried out a lot of research in this regard, and developed a series of products such as fruit and vegetable packaging lining, poultry and egg tray, supermarket tray, corrugated core paper, disposable tableware and so on. Its production technology has matured and will be introduced to the market in large quantities. Although paper has many advantages, it also has many disadvantages: papermaking consumes a lot of wood and causes water pollution at the same time; The cost of papermaking is high, and its mechanical strength and water resistance are difficult to compare with plastics. Thus, green packaging materials also have the characteristics of the times. Only by working hard on the processing technology of fiber products, the use of fiber products will be more extensive, and its great potential can be brought into full play

2 types of paper-based packaging materials

2 1 shredded paper

shredded paper is an economical and easily available buffer material. It is affected by water and can retain water due to siphonage. It can't prevent the object from sinking excessively and contacting the container, so it can only be used on light and small objects. Shredded paper is easy to burn and may spontaneously ignite under certain conditions

2. 2 wrinkled paper

wrinkled paper is an economical and easy to obtain buffer material that makes the bulb shine. Its characteristics are stable surface performance, not easy to produce dust, easy processing, and good plasticity. Its buffer effect is mainly achieved by squeezing wrinkled paper, which can provide a good buffer effect for light interior products

2. 3 paper cushion paper

paper cushion is divided into thin paper cushion and felt paper cushion. The tissue pad is made of several sheets of tissue paper, up to 10 sheets of tissue paper; Felt paper mats are made of pulp. Thin paper mats are mainly used as cushioning packaging materials. The paper pad is soft, will not damage the product surface, has good air permeability, makes harmful gas or moisture easy to emit, has low cost and good processing performance. Its disadvantage is easy to produce dust and poor water resistance. Paper mats are widely used for surface protection of furniture, musical instruments, household appliances and other products

2. 4 fiber paperboard

fiber paperboard, also known as paper fiber forming material, is a kind of elastic cushioning packaging material made of waste pulp, slag pulp, etc., which can be pressed into a single-sided corrugated board shape, and can also be made into soft and elastic thick paper. Some fiber paperboard can also be waterproof, or pasted with kraft paper surface, lining and other surface treatments, so as to obtain better surface properties. Fiber paperboard is widely used as wrapping material, padding material and building material

2. 5 corrugated board

corrugated board [3 - 4] is made of kraft paper (box board paper) as the inner and surface, and corrugated base paper (corrugated paper) as the sandwich in the middle. Change the number of layers and corrugation of the paper in the sandwich "At present, we have submitted the shapes and sizes of the pilot materials to the CIRC, and different kinds of corrugated cardboard can be obtained. It has the advantages of good environmental protection performance, wide applicable temperature range, low cost, convenient material acquisition, mature production technology, good processing performance and so on. The disadvantages are poor softness and poor resilience. For the inner packaging, three or five layers of corrugated cardboard can be directly used as the buffer of the inner packaging. At the same time, corrugated cardboard can be made Gaskets, gaskets, diaphragms, lining plates, corner guards and ribs of various shapes. For example, the new corrugated board and multi-layer paper core composite board successfully developed by the College of resources and environment of China Agricultural University have been successfully applied to the production of container pallets that fully meet the temperature control indicators required for low temperature devices in the national standard gb/t229 ⑵ 007 "metallic Charpy pendulum impact test method". This new type of corrugated board has high compressive strength and good cushioning performance. Its packaging cost is lower than that of wooden cases and its weight is lighter than that of wooden products. Multilayer paper core composite board not only has strong bending resistance, but also has the characteristics of flame retardant, water resistance, light weight, heat preservation, sound insulation and so on after special treatment. These two patented products take waste paper as the main raw material, with convenient processing, low production cost, no pollution in the production process, recyclable waste products, environmental protection and price advantages, and are widely used in the cushioning packaging of electronic and fruit products

corrugated board is widely used in packaging because of its pollution-free, renewable and good cushioning performance. In 1871, Americans (Albert Jones) invented single-sided corrugated cardboard for packaging glass lampshades and similar fragile items, and obtained the first patent right in the United States. By the end of the 19th century, the United States began to study the use of corrugated cardboard to make packaging and transportation boxes, and Japan invented double corrugated cardboard in 1920. Its use has expanded rapidly all over the world. By the Second World War, corrugated cardboard had replaced wooden boxes in transportation and packaging, accounting for 80% so far, Corrugated board has become one of the most widely used packaging materials in modern packaging, and the output value of corrugated boxes accounts for more than 30% of the total output value of packaging industrial products. China's corrugated box industry started relatively late. It began to promote the use of corrugated boxes in 1954, and the starting point of technology is also low. Since the reform and opening up, China's corrugated box industry has developed rapidly. There are more than 2000 corrugated production lines in the Pearl River Delta, Yangtze River Delta and coastal economically developed areas, Almost all corrugated cardboard on the market is provided by the above production lines. From the 1970s to 1980s, it was the single machine production period of corrugated cardboard in China; The production period of corrugated single-sided machine from the early 1990s to the mid-1990s has become history. After 70 ~ 80 years of development around the 20th century, a new period of corrugated box production line production in China has been created. In 1995, the annual output of corrugated board in China was only 7.4 billion square meters. In 2001, the output of corrugated board in China exceeded 13 billion square meters, increased to 14 billion square meters in 2002, and reached 15.1 billion square meters in 2003, It has surpassed Japan and become the world's second largest corrugated board producer after the United States

2. 6 pulp molding

pulp molding [5 - 6] is a paper product that takes waste newspapers, carton paper and other plant fibers as the main raw materials, and quickly and evenly deposits them on the shape model through vacuum molding, hydraulic molding, air compression molding and other methods. After molding into various shapes, it is pressed and dried, and the shape remains unchanged for a long time. Pulp molding began in the 1960s, and China began to introduce pulp molding production lines from abroad in the early 1980s. It is the main replacement product of foamed plastics currently popular in domestic and foreign markets. In addition to the advantages of rich raw materials, low cost, high recycling rate, no pollution to the environment, good plasticity and cushioning, light weight, low price, shock resistance, etc., pulp molded products also have the characteristics of good permeability, which is conducive to the preservation of food and seafood products. In the international circulation of goods, they are widely used in disposable tableware, convenient food packaging and fresh eggs, fruits, glass, ceramics, household appliances On the turnover package of hardware tools and other fragile products

2. 7 honeycomb paperboard

honeycomb paperboard [7 - 8] is similar to corrugated paperboard, and its paper core is not corrugated but honeycomb paper core. Honeycomb paperboard is a new packaging material developed in recent years. It has a series of advantages, such as good cushioning performance, high flat compression strength and static bending strength, excellent sound insulation and heat insulation performance, easy recycling and low cost. The application of honeycomb paperboard in packaging mainly includes honeycomb carton, cushion liner and honeycomb holder. Honeycomb paperboard products save resources and protect the ecological environment, which is in line with the application and development trend of international packaging industry materials. In recent years, the state attaches great importance to and supports the research, development, promotion and application of honeycomb paperboard materials. In 1999, the Resources Department of the State Economic and Trade Commission clearly listed honeycomb paperboard as a promotion and development plan in the "Research on the development countermeasures and planning of China's green packaging industry". The tasks and objectives of the national packaging industry planning for the tenth five year plan formulated by the China Packaging Technology Association also clearly pointed out that during the Tenth Five Year Plan period, the export of mechanical and electrical products should solve the problem of replacing wood, and accelerate the research, development and application of honeycomb paperboard instead of wood. However, due to the low degree of automation in the production of honeycomb paperboard, honeycomb paperboard has not been well solved in technology, process and other issues, and the price is expensive, honeycomb paperboard products have not been widely used in the packaging industry

2. 8 paper based cushioning packaging material

plant fiber cushioning packaging material is a new type of green environmental protection product developed in recent years. The product is made of plant fiber (waste newspaper, carton paper and other plant fiber materials) and starch additive materials. It has the advantages of no environmental pollution, simple production process, low cost, rich raw materials and so on. It is an ideal substitute for foaming plastic packaging materials. At present, the research and development of plant fiber cushioning packaging materials at home and abroad have made phased progress to varying degrees. The technological methods adopted by foreign plant fiber products mainly focus on foaming through the action of steam without adding chemical foaming agent to form granular foaming pulp. For example, Friedrich Prius, the founder of a company in Hamburg, Germany, used waste paper and starch as raw materials to make cushioning packaging materials. Experiments show that this buffer material can be quickly decomposed by microorganisms and fungi after being discarded, and its performance is better than that of foamed plastic. It is not only cheap, but also

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